There are a few common mistakes that can lead to linker problems, specifically problems where there is an undefined reference. These include:

• forgetting to add a .cpp file to the list of sources of a library in a CMakeLists.txt file
• missing an explicit instantiation of a function or class template in a cpp file
• not including a tpp file inside a cpp file
• the template specialization or function overload has been explicitly disabled via SFINAE (usually through the use of a Requires)
• not linking a library (explained below)

Possibly the most difficult part of fixing linking errors is understanding what they are trying to tell you. Let's take the following example

error: undefined reference to 'Tensor<DataVector,
brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)0, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0> > >
random_unit_normal<DataVector>(gsl::not_null<std::mersenne_twister_engine<
unsigned long, 32ul, 624ul, 397ul, 31ul, 2567483615ul, 11ul, 4294967295ul, 7ul,
2636928640ul, 15ul, 4022730752ul, 18ul, 1812433253ul>*>, Tensor<DataVector,
brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1>,
brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0>, Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0> > > const&)' in
lib/libTest_GeneralizedHarmonic.a(Test_UpwindFlux.cpp.o):
Test_UpwindFlux.cpp:function (anonymous namespace)::test_upwind_flux_random()

We can start by splitting out information about different parts of the error. First,

error: undefined reference to

tells us that we forgot to add a link dependency for a library or executable. The next relevant part of information is which library (executable) and file the missing function/class was in. This is at the end of the error message (unfortunately, where in the error message can depend on your linker, these examples used ld.lld v9):

lib/libTest_GeneralizedHarmonic.a(Test_UpwindFlux.cpp.o):
Test_UpwindFlux.cpp:function (anonymous namespace)::test_upwind_flux_random()

What this means is that the missing link dependency is used in the library Test_GeneralizedHarmonic, the file Test_UpwindFlux.cpp, and the function test_upwind_flux_random().

We have now determined what the linker error is (a missing link dependency), and in which library, file, and function the missing link dependency is used. We now need to understand what the missing link dependency is. Since SpECTRE uses a lot of templates, the missing reference (link dependency) can be quite long. In this case it is:

Tensor<DataVector,
brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)0, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0> > >
random_unit_normal<DataVector>(gsl::not_null<std::mersenne_twister_engine<
unsigned long, 32ul, 624ul, 397ul, 31ul, 2567483615ul, 11ul, 4294967295ul, 7ul,
2636928640ul, 15ul, 4022730752ul, 18ul, 1812433253ul>*>, Tensor<DataVector,
brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1>,
brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0>, Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0> > > const&)

In order to make this easier to read, it is recommended to run the code through ClangFormat. This can be done by copying the linker output into an empty cpp file and running clang-format -i EMPTY_FILE_WITH_LINKER_OUTPUT. Keep in mind that ClangFormat will only work if you have only copied the part of the linker output that resembles valid C++. Doing so in this case gives:

Tensor<DataVector, brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<
3ul, (UpLo)0, Frame::Inertial, (IndexType)0> > >
random_unit_normal<DataVector>(
unsigned long, 32ul, 624ul, 397ul, 31ul, 2567483615ul, 11ul,
4294967295ul, 7ul, 2636928640ul, 15ul, 4022730752ul, 18ul,
1812433253ul>*>,
Tensor<DataVector,
brigand::list<brigand::integral_constant<int, 1>,
brigand::integral_constant<int, 1> >,
brigand::list<
Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0>,
Tensor_detail::TensorIndexType<3ul, (UpLo)1, Frame::Inertial,
(IndexType)0> > > const&);

We see that it is the function random_unit_normal that isn't found. Now we can search in the code base where than function is defined. Doing a git grep "random_unit_normal" points to tests/Unit/Helpers/DataStructures/RandomUnitNormal.?pp. Looking at tests/Unit/Helpers/DataStructures/RandomUnitNormal.hpp we see that the function random_unit_normal is declared there, and looking in the corresponding cpp we see random_unit_normal is instantiated in the source file. Opening up tests/Unit/Helpers/DataStructures/CMakeLists.txt we see that the library name is DataStructuresHelpers, and RandomUnitNormal.cpp is in the list of sources for the library. Thus, linking Test_GeneralizedHarmonic against DataStructuresHelpers will resolve our error. To link against a library, you must add it to the target_link_libraries, or the last argument passed to add_test_library.

If random_unit_normal had been defined in the header file, then the error would've indicated that we did not include the header (or tpp) file into Test_UpwindFlux.cpp, and so the compiler could not generate an instantiation.

In summary:

• Identify target with undefined reference, i.e. the file included in a library or executable.
• Identify missing source definition (usually a function or static variable).
• Find source declaration and definition in repository.
• If source definition is in a cpp file, make sure it is in the list of sources in the CMakeLists.txt in the same directory and that the corresponding library is linked against by the target.

If the undefined reference is a template, make sure the required instantiation exists.

• If the undefined reference's definition is in a tpp file, make sure the tpp file is included in the target file.
• If the undefined reference's source definition is in an hpp file, make sure the specific instantiation is possible (e.g. not forbidden by a Requires)
Frame::Inertial
Definition: IndexType.hpp:44
UpLo
UpLo
Definition: IndexType.hpp:20
std::mersenne_twister_engine
DataVector
Stores a collection of function values.
Definition: DataVector.hpp:42
IndexType
IndexType
Definition: IndexType.hpp:134
gsl::not_null
Require a pointer to not be a nullptr
Definition: Gsl.hpp:182